What does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, that may take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, where you maintain the original author’s >B. A reference list during the end of one’s essay, which include details such as for instance:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, issue and volume(for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and really shouldn’t be considered as an ‘add-on’. If you are referencing, always use a referencing guide to help you ensure 100% accuracy.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you are expected to use only sources that are academic. The learning that is following on source credibility will help you see whether an external source is academic or not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA type of referencing, that is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, whilst the format is different:
|Try and achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing.|
Into the APA model of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you have to also follow. Here are a few examples from the essay that is chocolate
|Don’t make referencing something you will do in the same way an proofreading or editing activity. Include your citations that are in-text reference list in the first draft.|
An website that is excellent assistance with your APA referencing could be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself time that is enough have a look at your essay more often than once. For a 1000 word essay you need at the very least three days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a file that is separate then you can certainly observe how your essay develops and improves.|
Here are the sorts of questions you need to think about:
You’ll be able to look at other checklists similar to this one on editing your own work.
Let’s see how the author of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the above mentioned with all the final draft:
Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate through the new world, chocolate consumption is now a phenomenon that is worldwide. To start with, chocolate, a derivative of this cacao bean, was consumed as a glass or two, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s popularity that is inherent not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate tend to be more right down to earth; a true number of the realities is likely to be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there’s evidence that is possible some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat because of the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug rather than a food. Moreover, you have the likelihood of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Thus, it is argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood therefore the cardiovascular system it has also been connected to addiction and obesity.
Take your time and be careful when redrafting—it shall be worth it!
How can you write in an way that is academic?
Your lecturers may wish to hear your ‘voice’ because they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a type or kind of story. You are the storyteller that is principal the interior voice regarding the writer, leading your reader through to your conclusion.
Throughout the story, you can find different voices that appear from time to time. These are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for just what you may be saying and on occasion even giving an alternative perspective. The external voices may be split into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) in addition to indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
The reader has to know after all times whose voice they are hearing. Can it be your internal voice or even the external voice of other authors?
You might wonder tips on how to include your very own voice but still sound academic whenever you are currently talking about a subject area in which you have little (or no) knowledge. Including your voice does not mean that you need to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Here are a few samples of the critical/analytical language which you can use as the own internal voice once you present other people’s ideas:
|If you’re drafting your paragraphs, use a system that is colour-coding the only used here. It helps you ensure your academic voice is that is clear|
When you get more confident in making use of external sources, you can expect to gradually expand the language of one’s critical internal voice. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides types of even more expressions to use when assessing external sources.
Editing centers on the picture that is big such as for example overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the information of one’s essay, such as formatting, punctuation and grammar.
Everybody has their very own style that is personal of and proofreading. You need to concentrate on the forms of errors you make by looking commonly in the marker’s comments on your previous work.
Some people proofread alone; some get other individuals involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.